Trust is both a belief and a bond: Why is Trust for outsiders declining in communities? (Reblog from APEA and Rituu Nanda)

Following on from the localization blog by PLAN, APEA has shared why trust is declining in local communities. Note the learn not give lesson ūüôā

Reblog of Asia Pacific Evaluation Association / Rituu Nanda: https://asiapacificeval.org/trust-is-both-a-belief-and-a-bond/

Trust is both a belief and a bond: Why is Trust for outsiders declining in communities? (Insights from 13 countries across four continents)

A group of 16 Participants of the Community Ownership in MEL and Research Group of APEA from Benin, Bangladesh, France, India, Indonesia, Nepal, Nigeria, New Zealand, Nigeria, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Tunis, UK came together on 15th March’24 to discuss issues around Trust. (Ahmed, Amol Shaila Suresh, Anita Cheria, Bhuban Bajracharya, Chinenye Mercy Morka, Fiona Cram, Jhank, Lipika Das Gupta, Luc Barrière-Constantin, Maroof, Pakeeza Arif, Randika De Mel, Rituu B Nanda, Sarah Gharbi, Sushila Pandit, Visvalingam Muralithas.)

(This post is compiled by Rituu B Nanda based on the inputs of the discussion)

Trust is a basic need It helps anyone survive, and maintain relationships including with self, immediate family members, society. Trust helps in connecting one with others and just being yourself.

What do we mean by trust?

  • The absence of doubt about other‚Äôs intention‚Ķ
  • Being transparent and acknowledging that we know less about them, and seek to build understanding.
  • Recognizing that our actions may only play a small role in people‚Äôs lives and approaching with a sense of modesty and humility.
  • ¬†Standing with the communities, being one of them.
  • Convince the communities about our sincere intentions
  • Trust is about visiting with people

Decline in trust-internal and external

We observe a loss of trust both towards outsiders and within the communities themselves. Communities are losing trust in the system, implementation agencies, evaluation professionals and researchers. Due to longstanding practices followed by outsiders, the younger generation exhibits less trust in them compared to older generations, as their expectations remain unfulfilled. Moreover, trust within communities has eroded not only within groups in communities and neighbourhoods but also amongst family members.

Why is community’s Trust eroding in outsiders?

  • Evaluators‚Äô approach is often perceived as overly theoretical by communities. Community members feel that stakeholders treat them merely as means to achieve their own agenda. Outsiders, driven by predefined targets, tend to impose objectives on communities, exacerbating mistrust.
  • Tribal or indigenous communities prefer¬† isolation and often resist mainstreaming efforts , feeling unheard and excluded from decision-making processes that affect them.
  • Repeated service delivery projects in communities foster dependency rather than empowerment. Additionally, implementation agencies lack transparency and come with pre-planned projects without involving community in design.
  • The decline in trust is compounded by a sense of fatigue, as projects often address surface-level issues without tackling systemic problems. Consequently, expectations remain unmet, fuelling disillusionment among community members.
  • Communities express frustration with organizations that promise resources but vanish after a few years, leaving behind unfulfilled promises. This perpetuates the erosion of trust in development professionals.
Example from north Sri Lanka: Post-war Reconciliation A range of complex challenges can affect the well-being and social cohesion of residents. The northern part of Sri Lanka has been deeply affected by the decades-long civil conflict, and issues of reconciliation between different ethnic and religious groups remain. Rebuilding trust and fostering dialogue among communities is essential for long-term peace and stability.

How can we restore Trust?

Government authorities, civil society organizations, local communities, and other stakeholders have to prioritize inclusive development, social cohesion, and respect for diversity to build trust:

  • Trust is fragile and rather than imposing external definition, we need to understand how communities define trustthemselves.
  • Mistrust within a community often stems from past episodes, usually rooted in bitter experiences. It is the responsibility of outsiders to delve into these causes and initiate the rebuilding process.
  • Without trust from the community, a project is likely to fail. So, engagement with communities must commence with trust-building.
  • Cultivate competent communities which can address certain issues independently. For example, in rural Nepal, where a small percentage of households face extreme poverty, local government and communities can collaborate to address their needs.
  • Transparency regarding project objectives is paramount. Instead of devising plans and then presenting them to the community, they should be involved in shaping the work plan from the start.
  • ‚ÄúOutsiders need to come to learn, not to give‚ÄĚ ‚Äď We need to be learners ourselves. ¬†If we position ourselves solely as experts, communities may be less inclined to engage with us. Knowledge exchange should flow both ways.¬† Building trust necessitates authenticity and genuine connections. ¬†To restore trust ‚Äď we have to be non-judgemental, by being ourselves
  • Consistency is fundamental in trust-building. Move away from short term funding. Long-term engagement demonstrates commitment, gradually fostering trust over time.
Rebuilding Trust-from deficit based to strength-based approach After the Ebola epidemic, Constellation was invited to Guinea and Liberia to rebuild trust  in communities toward government health services. Employing the SALT approach, communities took ownership and initiated dialogue with health officials, thereby strengthening trust and partnership between both stakeholders. https://the-constellation.org/opening-safe-conversations-to-restore-trust-after-ebola/  

Conclusion Participants agreed that trust is fundamental for survival, and therefore, growing mistrust is worrying as the world becomes increasingly fragmented. Trustworthy relationships are crucial for sustaining long-term partnerships and ensuring the effectiveness of evaluations. Through trust, we can foster a safe environment for ourselves and others.

 

Fostering Values-Driven Sustainability Through an Ex-Post Capacities Lens (reposting a book chapter)

We all want our project results to be sustained, but without doing ex-post sustainability evaluations, we don’t know if they are. However, ex-post evaluations can also teach us how to fund, design, monitor, and evaluate projects before they close. They also require some evaluator competencies, and the checklists below are designed to help build capacities to make implemented projects more sustained, This research was also informed by excellent research by INTRAC and CDA. Enjoy! Also, you can download it from this great array of evaluator competencies via the Journal of Multidisciplinary Evaluation.

Fostering Values-Driven Sustainability Through an Ex-Post Evaluation Capacities Lens

 

Jindra Cekan/ova

Founder of Valuing Voices at Cekan Consulting LLC

Background: Ex-post evaluation of sustainability has been done for 40 years in global development. However, it has been done far less than 1% of all global development projects, for there is little proof that ‚Äúsustainable‚ÄĚ development is or is not. Similarly, foreign aid projects are implemented to foster sustainability, but without the benefit of evidence from ex-post evaluations of what drove it and limited research on the benefits of robust exit strategies..

 

Purpose: Transparency in values we hold, and evaluative capacities’ best practices that we bring to our evaluations inform how they are done, with whom, and for what. Using the evidence base from ex-post evaluations and exit strategies led to these nine checklists. Professionals in monitoring and evaluation should use them to foster long-term sustainability and learning.

 

Setting: Drawing on primary and secondary research across 91 ex-post evaluations of foreign aid sustainability plus two major studies of exit strategies globally..

 

Intervention: Not applicable.

 

Research Design: The checklists were drafted based on sustainability and exit studies and then vetted with lead researchers of the two exit studies. They were revised, and additional research was done on both values-driven evaluation and evaluation competencies.

Data Collection and Analysis: Some primary data was collected during ex-post evaluations by the author, complemented by secondary research.

 

Findings: Sustained exit commitments and conditions checklists can build evaluator capacities in evaluating sustainability. Several have been used by Tufts, USAID, the GEF, and the Adaptation Fund and verified actual sustainability and its prospects. Also, evaluator capacities can be built.

 

Keywords: ex-post evaluation; sustainability; monitoring and evaluation; values; competencies; M&E checklists

Abstract

 

Monitoring and evaluation (M&E) work is guided by an array of values held by funders, implementers, M&E experts, and project participants and partners. Some values are explicit, while others are assumed, such as the truth of ‚Äúvalues-neutral‚ÄĚ evaluation or that projects are sustainable in the long term. I espouse Patton‚Äôs (2022) ‚Äúactivist interventionist change-committed evaluation‚ÄĚ by both advocating for ex-post evaluation of many development aid projects‚Äô untested hypotheses about durability, and suggesting ex-post lessons can shape development aid projects from design to closure. Ex-post lessons are valuable for current project planning, design, implementation, and M&E. Using them can make development results more sustainable. Checklists created to ease monitoring and evaluation of prospects for sustainability should be used with country nationals. Six evaluator competencies support sustainability practice, namely systems thinking competency, collaboration competency, anticipatory competency, and reflective, technical, and situational practice competencies. Drawing on several studies that validate this approach, this paper shows how infrequently ex-post evaluations of sustainability are conducted. This seems to indicate that the lessons learned from ex-post evaluation are not valued. Bringing lessons from rare ex-post evaluations to benefit current implementation and exit is the core of the checklists described in this article. Learning from ex-post evaluations and exit studies is very beneficial to inform current aid projects and helps results last. Evaluator competencies are built through this paper. Evaluating both the results expected by donors and new, locally emerging outcomes from local efforts to sustain results also adds value to the canon. Ongoing learning and sharing lessons from progress around the project cycle, from participants to donors, and among M&E experts is vital, especially bringing those lessons back to new projects. The six competencies, the technical checklists, and evaluative thinking about sustainability can help shift programming toward locally led and sustainable development.

Introduction

 

This paper explores a range of values and capacities needed to support the sustainability of foreign aid development projects. It draws on 12 years of Valuing Voices research.[1] This initiative, aimed to increase sustainable solutions for excellent impact through learning from ex-post project sustainability evaluations, also focuses on how evaluators can promote the design, monitoring, and evaluation of sustainability pre-closure and draw on germane evaluator competencies. This paper explores a range of evaluators’ views on the values we bring as monitoring and evaluation experts, as well as the competencies needed to design, implement, monitor, and evaluate for long-term sustainability.

 

Both implicit and explicit values that donors, implementers, and M&E commissioners bring to global development work influence how that work is done. Evaluators need to be aware of and promote the explicit and implicit values that drive M&E work to build evaluation capacity that manifests evaluation values to ascertain which project results are sustainable, by whom, for how long, and why.

 

Sustainability, i.e., the long-term durability of project results, does not happen by itself; it needs to be fostered during the project, but more needs to be known about the conditions required for sustainability to take root after project closure and exit. Valuing Voices’ founder, consultants, and clients believe that evaluating sustainability cannot be limited to desk studies; that eliciting the views of country-based former project participants and partners is key. Based on the lessons from 10 such ex-post sustainability and exit evaluations done by Valuing Voices and over 90 other studies that include participant responses from a variety of donors and implementers,[2] plus seminal studies of exit strategies from Lewis (2016) and CDA (2020), we found nine elements need to be monitored and evaluated from project design to the ex-post years after closure. Development practitioners, including evaluators, need to build their knowledge about what has been sustained in ex-post evaluations and have this inform how they advocate to include these nine elements in project design, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation. This will need equal participation by national partners and participants to be built in throughout to foster long-term results and for new emerging pathways to emerge.

 

The nine elements are presented below in the form of checklists, which function as evaluator capacities tools. For by identifying what elements are needed to foster sustainability in programming, evaluators can inform clients and employers of what needs to be designed, implemented, monitored, and evaluated. The checklists cover two kinds of sustainability drivers: (a) commitments to sustainability, which includes designing beyond the project lifetime through a theory of sustainability, thinking about how to foster sustainability through the process of exit/handover, and considering risks and resilience; and (b) building conditions within the very project to foster lasting sustainability. This involves looking beyond resources as the only driver of durability, to seeing what makes local ownership of results robust. This includes considering several questions: How should equitable partnerships be fostered for long-term results? What capacities to keep disseminating behavior change exist? How adaptive are the timeframe and exit to foster sustainability? How accountable are projects in their communications to partners as they exit?

 

One of the greatest shocks that threatens the sustainability of most global development aid investments is climate change, which is why the natural world and access to viable nature is part of both risks and resilience to shocks. It is discussed separately, given the urgency with which we need to monitor and evaluate its progression and effect on sustainability. Some evaluator competency-building resources that help to evaluate the natural world have been added (e.g., Brouselle, 2022; Rowe, 2019). This is because nature is assumed and often overlooked in much global development programming design and evaluation, as seen in the review of several hundred ex-posts, exit reports, webinars, and evaluations, including blog posts about sustainable development by Cekan (2020a; 2020b), and underscored by Rowe (2019). The natural world and its environmental sustainability are a missing link, while the oft-stated but rarely evaluated ‚Äúresilience‚ÄĚ is often unproven (except for new ex-post research by the Adaptation Fund (2022). A viable natural world continuing to support lives and livelihoods underpins sustainability across so much of global foreign aid and urgently needs inclusion in all evaluations.

 

Defining Evaluation, Its Values, and Sustainability

 

Michael Scriven defined evaluation this way: ‚ÄúEvaluation determines the merit, worth, or value of things‚ÄĚ (Scriven, 1991, as cited in Coffman, 2004, p.¬†1). ‚ÄúValuation‚ÄĚ (measurement, estimation of worth) is embedded in our work as evaluators. Increasingly, the field of evaluation is discussing the values that underpin the work of evaluators. Thomas Archibald notes in a book review, ‚ÄúSchwandt, House, and Scriven‚ÄĒcall into question the dubious ‚Äėvalue-free doctrine‚Äô of the social sciences‚Ķ [and] emphasize[s] the obvious yet frequently ignored primacy of values and valuing in evaluation‚ÄĚ (2016, p.¬†448). Evaluation, from the perspective of Michael Scriven, is filled with values:

 

If evaluators cling to a values-free philosophy, then the inevitable and necessary application of values in evaluation research can only be done indirectly, by incorporating the values of other persons who might be connected with the programs, such as program administrators, program users, or other stakeholders. (Encyclopedia.com, 2018, para. 26)

 

This opens a door for participatory input from those most closely connected to projects¬ĺthe partners and the participants.

 

Michael Quinn Patton highlights tensions between evaluations that seek independent definitive judgments versus those that honor diverse perspectives. He values work done via participatory co-creation by activist, interventionist, change-committed evaluators, where the evaluation itself engages in change. This paper explicitly encourages those involved in monitoring and evaluation to work through participatory co-creation, because sustainability can only be maintained if it is locally driven. Evaluation also needs change-committed evaluators who embrace long-term sustainability.

 

The Development Assistance Committee of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD/DAC) defines sustainability as the basis for ex-post project evaluation. Their definition includes that same reference to long-term sustainability, and its evaluation is part of the change needed in our field¬ĺnamely, a focus on longitudinal results: ‚Äúthe continuation of benefits from a development intervention after major development assistance has been completed‚Ķ. [and] [t]he probability of continued long-term benefits. The resilience to risk of the net benefit flows over time‚ÄĚ (2002, p.¬†37). In OECD/DAC‚Äôs updated and detailed definition, evaluators are directed to consider sustainability

 

at each point of the results chain and the project cycle of an intervention. Evaluators should also reflect on sustainability in relation to resilience and adaptation in dynamic and complex environments. This includes the sustainability of inputs (financial or otherwise) after the end of the intervention and the sustainability of impacts in the broader context of the intervention. For example, an evaluation could assess whether an intervention considered partner capacities and built ownership at the beginning of the implementation period as well as whether there was willingness and capacity to sustain financing at the end of the intervention. In general, evaluators can examine the conditions for sustainability that were or were not created in the design of the intervention and by the intervention activities and whether there was adaptation where required…. If the evaluation is taking place ex post, the evaluator can also examine whether the planned exit strategy was properly implemented to ensure the continuation of positive effects as intended. (2019 Sustainability, para. 3, 6).

 

These key elements, especially the ‚Äúconditions for sustainability,‚ÄĚ inform the checklists in this paper.

 

The OECD also differentiates between durability and ecological sustainability. With the latter being relegated to:

 

Confusion can arise between sustainability in the sense of the continuation of results, and environmental sustainability or the use of resources for future generations…. environmental sustainability is a concern (and may be examined under several criteria, including relevance, coherence, impact, and sustainability). (2019, Sustainability, para. 2)

 

Yet sustainability rests on our valuing the environment and planning for risks and resilience to sustainability (see Figure¬†8). As evaluators, we need to push donors and implementers to examine the natural system‚Äôs resilience, which supposedly unrelated sectors rely on. For instance, the environment affects sectors such as income generation (e.g., natural products being processed by people generating income) and education (e.g., the gardens that subsidize teacher salaries, or the farming, relying on rain, that supports parents to afford school fees). In ‚ÄúPlanting Seeds for Change,‚ÄĚ evaluator Brouselle (2022) reminds us of the primacy of climate values in Evaluation‚Äôs COP26 compendium:

 

We must challenge the ways that evaluations are commissioned; how policies and programmes are framed¬ĺto take risks, going beyond existing evaluation mandates, to improve equity, health and prosperity; reduce pollution; take care of our air, waters and lands; and protect biodiversity‚Ķ we should use our facilitating skills to foster democracy and engagement. Evaluators can contribute to creating spaces for dialogue and debate with commissioners, participants, and stakeholders, on the socio-ecological impacts of projects, programmes and policies. (para. 4)

 

Linking Competencies and Capacities to Sustainability via Valuing Voices Sustained Exit Checklists

There are six types of evaluator competencies that are relevant to focus work planning for sustainability during design/implementation or conducting an ex-post sustainability evaluation.

 

Evaluation as a field needs to embrace a variety of such competencies as we seek to address a range of complex problems. The first three competencies come from the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), from a 2017 report called ‚ÄúEducation for Sustainable Development Goals: Learning Objectives,‚ÄĚ which informs the macro view for sustainability and locally led development.

 

Systems Thinking Competency

UNESCO (2017) defines this competency as ‚Äúthe abilities to recognize and understand relationships; to analyse complex systems; to think of how systems are embedded within different domains and different scales; and to deal with uncertainty‚ÄĚ (p.¬†10). This is key as interventions interact with complicated societies, often with wider aims than what just one project wants to achieve. Uncertainty affects projects in implementation (which is why adaptive management is a checklist item (see Figure 7). Further, because ex-posts are not about direct attribution, given the complexity of communities, but contribution, it is vital to look at a range of outside influences post‚Äďproject closure that could explain the results (not) seen.

 

Collaboration Competency

 

This competency is pivotal in designing, implementing, monitoring, and evaluating sustainability, which lies in both ‚Äúthe abilities to learn from others; to understand and respect the needs, perspectives and actions of others‚Ķ and to facilitate collaborative and participatory problem solving‚ÄĚ (UNESCO, 2017, p.¬†10). Listening to those who will be tasked with sustaining results or innovating emerging outcomes involves a close collaboration, as does using participatory methods to both design for and troubleshoot/problem-solve with.

 

Anticipatory Competency

 

Anticipatory competency is ‚Äúthe ability to understand and evaluate multiple futures¬ĺpossible, probable and desirable¬ĺand to create one‚Äôs own visions for the future, to apply the precautionary principle, to assess the consequences of actions, and to deal with risks and changes‚ÄĚ (UNESCO, 2017, p.¬†10).¬†This competency is key to the whole field of sustainability as a field of study. Often projects assume sustainability will be the long-term result of development efforts. But, as Rogers and Coates (2015) note,

 

Hope is not a strategy. Sustainability plans that depend on the expectation, or hope, that individuals and organizations will continue to function without the key factors previously identified are not likely to achieve this goal. Such plans should take account of what is feasible within the economic, political, and social/cultural context of the areas in which they work. (p. 44)

 

This also relates to two other competencies, systems thinking (discussed above) and situational practice (discussed below).

 

The Canadian Evaluation Society (CES; 2018) provides us with the second three domains relevant to sustainability that evaluators need to consider in terms of how the M&E is done.

 

Reflective Practice Competencies

CES‚Äôs Reflective Practice domain includes competencies that ‚Äúfocus on the evaluator‚Äôs knowledge of evaluation theory and practice; application of evaluation standards, guidelines, and ethics; and awareness of self, including reflection on one‚Äôs practice and the need for continuous learning and professional growth‚ÄĚ (2018, p.¬†5). This competency applies to the content of the sustainability methods presented below, as well as the knowledge evaluators will gain from evaluating prospects for sustainability and emerging outcomes (Figure¬†1) in projects. Additionally, this competency domain includes both considering ‚Äúthe well-being of human and natural systems in evaluation practice‚ÄĚ and being ‚Äúcommitted to transparency‚ÄĚ (p.¬†6), which is the aim of using the checklists as a whole sustainability learning process. It is important in such reflection to clarify one‚Äôs values.

 

Technical Practice Competencies

These competencies focus on the ‚Äústrategic, methodological, and interpretive decisions required to conduct an evaluation‚ÄĚ (CES, 2018, p.¬†5), which directly applies to the five sustained exit commitments and conditions (see Figure¬†3). One competency, ‚Äúassesses program evaluability,‚ÄĚ is germane to ex-post evaluation and prospects for long-term sustainability. Cekan and Legro (2021) have applied the elements in the nine checklists which comprise the Embedding Sustainability in the Project Cycle framework to a World Bank sustainability study, and Cekan has used it in ex-post evaluations, such as a recent one for youth employment (USAID Mali, 2022). It has informed the training materials created for the Adaptation Fund (2023) on how to evaluate sustainability and resilience ex-post.

 

Situational Practice Competencies

As so few projects are ‚Äúcookie-cutter‚ÄĚ versions of each other, it is always vital to contextualize each project and its prospects for sustainability in its unique context, applying CES‚Äôs third competency domain, Situational Practice: ‚ÄúFocus on understanding, analyzing, and attending to the many circumstances that make every evaluation unique, including culture, stakeholders, and context‚ÄĚ (CES, 2018, p.¬†6), identifying how specifically the project has moved around the project cycle (see Figure¬†2), particularly monitoring ‚Äúorganizational changes and changes in the program environment during the course of the evaluation‚ÄĚ (p.¬†7) as well as tracing changes that lead to likely sustainability post-project, and building evaluation capacity by ‚Äúengag[ing] in reciprocal processes in which evaluation knowledge and expertise are shared between the evaluator and stakeholders‚ÄĚ (p.¬†7) throughout both the analysis and the sharing of the learning results.

 

Competencies that M&E professionals need can be used when monitoring and evaluating prospects for sustainability during project implementation as well as during ex-post evaluations. Sustainability prospects increase when they are designed and planned for, as Zivetz et al. (2017) found in researching ex-posts. There are clear advantages of planning for sustainability measurement from the outset of the project as well as measuring sustainability through the entire project cycle. Donors, implementers, and experts in monitoring and evaluation, as well as national partners, need to be trained in these competencies.

Evaluating Sustainability in Practice

Aid experts including evaluators embed values in their work in a myriad of ways, starting with how projects are funded and designed and by whom; for this reason, much M&E emphasis is on final rather than ex-post evaluations and learning from them. Over $3.5 trillion has been spent on public foreign aid projects in the past 70 years (OECD, 2019). Yet, the aid industry has evaluated fewer than 1% of these projects for sustainability (Cekan, 2015).¬†Valuing Voices‚Äô ex-post research on 39 organizations‚Äô ex-post evaluations of sustainability shows that most project results decrease (10‚Äď90%) as early as 2 years ex-post (Valuing Voices, 2012).

 

Except for the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA), which has done over 2,500 ex-post evaluations on their grants, loans, and technical assistance, learning from what lasts is rare among international aid donors and implementers. An Asian Development Bank study (2010) of post-completion sustainability found that ‚Äúsome early evidence suggests that as many as 40% of all new activities are not sustained beyond the first few years after disbursement of external funding‚ÄĚ (p.¬†1). The World Bank and Inter-American Development Bank, both multilateral banks, show less stellar investments in ex-post learning (Lopez, 2015; Cekan, 2022). Ex-post evaluations are rare, as is illustrated by a Sustainable Governance Indicators overview of EU member state policy evaluations, with most countries using them rarely or not at all (Sustainable Governance Indicators, n.d.).

 

Often in the ex-post evaluation of sustained impact, we see some results fade as early as 2 years ex-post. It is key to prioritize learning from what was sustained by asking our project participants and local/national partners directly during implementation about sustainability prospects. Field inquiry gives no time to test assumptions about drivers/barriers that the project is being implemented under and test whether optimistic trajectories will hold post-closure, as is widely assumed in the global development industry. For as Sridharan and Nakaima (2010) write:

 

There is no reason for the trajectory of performance outcomes to be linear or monotonic over time¬ĺthis has important implications for an evaluation system‚Ķ [and] should programs that do not have a ‚Äėsuccessful‚Äô trajectory of ‚Äėperformance measures‚Äô be terminated? (p.¬†144)

 

To make sustainability more likely, designing, implementing, monitoring, and evaluating for sustainability is key, and makes successful trajectories more likely. While widespread ex-post learning would be the most effective, lessons can be learned to manifest our values of pro-sustainable development by extracting learning from the ex-post evaluations and exit studies that have been done. This is the aim of the rest of this article.

 

Most ex-posts have found mixed results of some activities being sustained, and others not. Often, what was relevant and locally owned, was sustained, whereas activities that relied on donor incentives such as food aid failed to continue (Catholic Relief Services [CRS], 2016). A 2020 Jones and Jordan ex-post study of USAID Global Waters projects found that while 25 million have gained access to water and sanitation,

 

despite tremendous achievements within the life of our programs, they have largely not endured… Rural water systems that, at activity close, delivered safe water to households have fallen into disrepair. Basic latrine ownership and use have dwindled. Communities certified as open-defecation free are backsliding, and gains in handwashing have not been sustained. [Nonetheless,] where USAID invested in providing technical assistance to committed government partners and utilities, gains in service provision and local capacity were sustained, with local actors taking up and expanding upon best practices introduced during activity implementation. (para. 3, 4)

 

This again supports designing and implementing for sustainability during the project, which is the aim of this paper. But such reviews are rare among donors.

 

The dearth of ex-post evaluations suggests that most global development evaluations currently being conducted are not value neutral. Commissioners seem to value short-term results rather than showing and learning from sustained impacts. Further, donors and implementers design and fund aid projects and their evaluations. Country nationals need to be engaged throughout the project cycle (Figure 2), for they will be left to sustain results. As Scriven stated in discussions with Donaldson, Patton and Fetterman (2010),

 

I want to hear, not just about intended use or users of the evaluation. I want to find out about impact on intended and actual impactees‚ÄĒthe targeted and accidental recipients of the program, not just the people that get the evaluation. So I consider my task as an evaluator to find out who it is that this program is aimed at reaching and helping. (p. 23)

 

Emerging Outcomes

 

Typical ex-post evaluations focus on what lasted from what donors funded. Few evaluations return ex-post to also ask the front-line users, project participants, and partners what lasted of the prior project, and what emerged from their local efforts to sustain results with fewer or different resources, partnerships, etc. This glaring omission speaks to a lack of valuing sustained results, much less learning from local capacities to sustain results differently. Thus an innovation by Valuing Voices in evaluating sustainability, either ex-post or for monitoring sustainability, is the search for emerging outcomes, namely what emerges from local efforts to sustain results, rather than focusing only on expected donor-designed pathways to still exist.

 

The example in Figure 1 comes from 2023 Adaptation Fund training materials on ex-post; it draws on a three-year World Food Program Ecuadorian ex-post evaluation of sustainability and resilience. The expected change was that improving the water supply for crops would lead to improved food security. While that was happening to some degree, other outcome pathways were happening as well. In some areas, more water was used to improve cultivation methods, which led to an emerging outcome of children returning home to their rural villages to help their parents and continued to sustain food security, which decreased family vulnerability. Elsewhere, maladaptive pathways also emerged, in which a landslide eliminated the stable water reservoir source in one site, leading farmers to revert to drawing water from a river via pump systems, which likely led to decreased water for the community.

Figure 1. Expected, Emerging, and Unexpected Outcomes Ex-Post

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Note. From Training Material for Ex Post Pilots, by Adaptation Fund, 2023 (https://www.adaptation-fund.org/document/training-material-for-ex-post-pilots/).

 

The picture is incomplete without looking at what was expected to be sustained and what local communities had to innovate to maintain results. Unless we look at both what was expected to be sustained and what local communities had to innovate to sustain results, the picture would be incomplete. Both can be traced during implementation and at ex-post evaluation.

 

Sustainability Around the Project Cycle

We need to build sustainability in from the onset, from funding and design to implementation, while looking out for alternative paths that locals create (see the orange slices in Figure 2). Once local stakeholders are involved throughout the project cycle (green slices in Figure 2), results are more likely to be sustained, for the programming is done with country nationals who will sustain results after donors leave. Assumptions need to be checked, adaptation to foster durability needs to be monitored and evaluated, and exit needs to include consultations on ownership, resources, partnerships, adaptation, resilience, and communications, much of which can be traced in a theory of sustainability.

 

Figure 2. Embedding Sustainability in the Project Cycle

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Note. From ‚ÄúWhat Happens After the Project Ends?‚ÄĚ, by J. Cekan, 2016 (https://valuingvoices.com/what-happens-after-the-project-ends-country-national-ownership-lessons-from-post-project-sustained-impact-evaluations-part-2/ ).

 

As ex-post evaluation of projects is an important link missing before exiting with participants and partners leading sustainability; this paper focuses on lessons learned from the 90+ ex-posts reviewed. Lessons come from projects such as those below. Roughly 80% of the CRS Niger PROSAN food security project was sustained 3 years ex-post. It was¬†implemented for sustainability¬†by taking the final 18 months to exit, rather than 3 to 6 months. National partners were co-implementers pre‚Äďproject closure. The UK charity EveryChild similarly worked with INTRAC (Lewis, 2016; Morris et al., 2021) to evaluate sustainability during exit. They did so in four countries 5 years ex-post, learning similar lessons about phasing down and over before exiting sustainably.

Were national stakeholders to partner equally, these local ‚Äútargeted recipients‚ÄĚ as Scriven tells us, could require projects not to close until further funding was secured, as EveryChild UK did. Donors, implementers, and evaluators need to listen to what locals want and can sustain. All of us who value sustainable development need to design M&E to incorporate sustainability. Exemplary studies are an ex-post tracing national primary teacher training (USAID Uganda, 2017) and final evaluation projecting sustainably prospects pre-exit from migrants and NGOs in Bangladesh (Hasan, 2021).

Thus, the checklists below help foster sustainability through M&E that involves questioning assumptions that donors and implementers, partners, and participants hold about the sustainability of results. It means building capacities to monitor and evaluate conditions for sustainable impact that are embedded in a traceable, relevant way as projects are implemented. It means documenting and learning from data throughout implementation, planning sustained exit beyond the final evaluation, and retaining data to be evaluated ex-post. This involves building understanding and capacities for ex-post evaluation and project planning (funding, design, implementation, and M&E) to foster it. This includes national stakeholders and evaluators who have a greater stake in their countries who can help foreign national stakeholders focus on learning what excelled or failed and how to use it for future projects in-country.

 

Validation

 

Several sources of expertise inform and validate the checklists (see Figures¬†4 to¬†8). In their 2015 analysis of exit strategies and sustainability for four USAID / Food and Peace countries, Rogers and Coates highlighted monitoring and evaluating the presence of four ‚Äúdrivers‚ÄĚ of sustainability. These drivers create conditions that both are used to evaluate sustainability ex-post and are likely indicators for how likely sustainability is (if such drivers were put in place during implementation pre-exit). Rogers and Coates‚Äô drivers are (a) sustained¬†motivation/ ownership¬†by national stakeholders to sustain a project‚Äôs activities; if activities are yielding relevant results, they are far more likely to be sustained; (b) a sustained flow of¬†resources¬†from, national or international sources; (c) sustained technical and managerial¬†capacities¬†passed on to new participants; and (d)¬†linkages/partnerships¬†with governmental/private or other organizations, for an array of support. Negi and Sohn (2022) confirmed the presence of these drivers across Global Environment Facility (GEF) projects created by Rogers and Coates and applied by Cekan and Legro (2022). Negi and Sohn‚Äôs review of 62 projects also confirmed that project design, a key sustainability driver, feeds into OECD‚Äôs (2019) Relevance criterion, as well as Figure 4. Similarly, USAID Uganda (2017) found the same four drivers were operational in sustainability.

These elements of sustainability draw on ex-post research by Cekan and key studies about participatory implementation and exit. One is Anderson, Brown, and Jean‚Äôs (2012) report Time to Listen.¬†They interviewed 6,000 recipients and implementers of international aid across 20 countries from inside and outside the aid system. Their study focuses on unearthing stories ‚Äúon the ways that people on the receiving side of aid suggest it can become more effective and accountable‚ÄĚ (p.¬†i). A second source was CDA (2020) case studies research led by Jean and a consortium of non-governmental organizations (NGOs), focused on improving exit. This work, Stopping as Success, highlighted that a gradual exit¬†process contributes to sustainability. This research informs one of the commitments mentioned in Figure 3, namely phasing down over time during implementation and to national partners before exiting. These studies underscore that global development should be informed by local conditions and country nationals. Local participation is important while checking on sustainability prospects, as is getting local feedback on how well exit is going pre-closure. These checklists below also draw on seminal research by Lewis for INTRAC (2016), from extensive work on exit among NGOs.

Sustained Exit Commitments and Conditions Checklists

 

Figure 3. Valuing Voices Sustained Exit Commitments and Conditions Checklists

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Note. From ‚ÄúExit for Sustainability Checklists,‚ÄĚ by Valuing Voices, 2020 (https://valuingvoices.com/wp-content/uploads/2021/03/Exit-For-Sustainability-Checklists-Dec2020-2.pdf).

 

Now, let‚Äôs return to reflect on how the evaluator competencies articulated by UNESCO and CES fit into these Figure 3 commitments and conditions. Systems thinking competency leads us to consider what a theory of sustainability could consist of, and how to plan for it, given the complex ecosystems any project is embedded in. Collaborative and anticipatory competencies are brought into play when handing over projects during implementation, pre-exit. This is especially relevant to partnerships seeking to best face unknown future risks to sustainability and foster resilience to shocks pre-closure. Taking these commitments to heart predisposes projects to continuation. Another competency, reflective practice, needs to be used to discern which conditions of sustainability are driving change. Further, technical and situational practice are used in the field, examining if and to what degree sustainability is driven by these six conditions. While four of the six conditions (ownership, resources, capacities, and partnerships) driving sustainability come from the Rogers and Coates study, two additional conditions have been found to be important in the exit literature. Namely, how well timeframes pre-exit can be shifted to enable sustainability, and how clear and accountable the communication is between those closing out and those being left before closure. Consider using the nine checklists listed in Figures 4 through 8 along a scale of high‚Äďmedium‚Äďlow and revisiting them periodically to gauge change.

Revising a theory of change into a theory of sustainability (Figure 4) is helpful to chart stakeholders, assumptions, trajectories, key questions, and whom to ask.

 

Figure 4. Sustainability Ex-Post Project: Theory of Sustainability

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ask all stakeholders involved long before exit about how much they feel they ‚Äúown‚ÄĚ the project‚Äôs continuation and the resources needed. There is a wide range of resources to be explored and questions to ask about how much the interventions are generating local results that are valued (see Figure 5).

 

Figure 5. Designing for Exit: Ownership/Motivation and Resources

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The questions in Figure 6 can be used during baseline and midterm evaluations. Some questions can also be selected, as part of ongoing monitoring, from the lists of resources and ownership (above) and capacity strengthening and partnerships. With such data, evaluating sustainability during ex-post evaluations is much easier.

 

Figure 6. Checking Assumptions: Capacity Strengthening and Partnerships

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Two of the elements that tell the most about the extent to which project implementation fosters sustainability are the amount of planning that has gone into project exit and handover, as well as adapting timeframes to readiness for exit (see Figure 7).

 

Figure 7. Monitoring and Adaptation: Exit/Handover, Timeframe, and Adaptation of Implementation

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Finally, long-term sustained and responsible exit fostering local ownership is based on planning for the immediate term (communications about who leaves and who knows why the project is closing, how respectfully this is this done and with how much involvement by local partners). As shown in the two checklists in Figure 8, it is vital to examine how well consideration of present and future risks and resilience to shocks have been embedded in programming.

 

Figure 8. Exit Consultations and Close: Risks/Resilience and Accountable Communications

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Conclusions

 

In addition to infusing sustainability into the project cycle during implementation, it is important to live one‚Äôs values and use evaluator capacities as guiding lights for one‚Äôs work. What also matters is monitoring and evaluating sustained ownership and the other hallmarks of sustainability within the checklists during programming and at ex-post evaluation. Further, it‚Äôs important to look for the capacities that remain behind after projects close (emerging outcomes) and learn from ex-post evaluations to inform current programming to facilitate sustainability while there are sufficient resources, partnerships, capacities and other conditions. Also important is fostering what national and local stakeholders want to sustain through their commitments and conditions. Six competencies equipping monitoring and evaluation experts to do this well have been outlined above, namely systems thinking competency, collaboration competency, anticipatory competency, and reflective, technical, and situational practice competencies. These types of ‚Äúevaluative thinking‚ÄĚ lenses can and should be used, as Archibald (2021) calls for an ‚Äúethical accountability‚ÄĚ in locally led development. Values-driven sustainability can be a powerful driving force to improve public accountability and good governance. Equipped with such skills, evaluators simultaneously bolster evaluation systems and capacities among national evaluators and program implementers alike. For equitable, values-driven accountability for sustainability to happen, power needs to shift to people at national and local levels to determine what resources, partnerships, and capacities are needed and what is a priority for them to take ownership of. We can begin as soon as possible by building the most likely conditions for sustainability and commitments to foster sustainable exit into the project cycle. We have no time to lose; embracing such values-driven sustainability would be of great benefit.

 

 

References

 

Adaptation Fund (2022). Training material for ex post evaluations. https://www.adaptation-fund.org/about/evaluation/publications/evaluations-and-studies/ex-post-evaluations/

Adaptation Fund. (2023). Training materials for ex post pilots. https://www.adaptation-fund.org/document/training-material-for-ex-post-pilots/

Anderson, M. B., Brown, D., & Jean, I. (2012, December 1). Time to listen: Hearing people on the receiving end of international aid. CDA Collaborative. https://www.cdacollaborative.org/publication/time-to-listen-hearing-people-on-the-receiving-end-of-international-aid/

Archibald, T. (2016). Evaluation foundations revisited: Cultivating a life of the mind for practice [Review of the book Evaluation foundations revisited: Cultivating a life of the mind for practice, by T.¬†A. Schwandt]. American Journal of Evaluation, 37(3), 448‚Äď452. https://doi.org/10.1177/1098214016648794

Archibald, T. (2021, February 18). Critical and evaluative thinking skills for transformative evaluation. Eval4Action. https://www.eval4action.org/post/critical-and-evaluative-thinking-skills-for-transformative-evaluation

Asian Development Bank. (2010, October). Special evaluation study on post-completion sustainability of Asian Development Bank-assisted projects. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. https://www.oecd.org/derec/adb/47186868.pdf

Brouselle, A. (2022). Planting seeds for change. Evaluation,¬†28(1), 7‚Äď35. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/13563890221074173

Canadian Evaluation Society. (2018, November). Competencies for Canadian evaluation practice. Evaluation Canada. https://evaluationcanada.ca/files/pdf/2_competencies_cdn_evaluation_practice_2018.pdf

Catholic Relief Services. (2016, October 7). Participation by all: The keys to sustainability of a CRS food security project in Niger. https://www.crs.org/our-work-overseas/research-publications/participation-all

CDA. (2020). Stopping as success: Research findings case studies. CDA, Peace Direct, Search for Common Ground. https://www.stoppingassuccess.org/resources/

Cekan, J. (2015). When funders move on. Stanford Social Innovation Review. https://ssir.org/articles/entry/when_funders_move_on

Cekan, J. (2016, February 19). What happens after the project ends? Country-national ownership lessons from post-project sustained impacts evaluations (Part 2). Valuing Voices. https://valuingvoices.com/what-happens-after-the-project-ends-country-national-ownership-lessons-from-post-project-sustained-impact-evaluations-part-2/

Cekan, J. (2020a, April 20). Sustaining sustainable development. Valuing Voices. https://valuingvoices.com/sustaining-sustainable-development/

Cekan, J. (2020b, October 28). Sustained exit? Prove it or improve it! [Webinar]. Valuing Voices. https://valuingvoices.com/interactive-webinar-sustained-exit-prove-it-or-improve-it-nov-6-2020/

Cekan, J. (2022, November 26). Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) ‚Äď Where have your ex-post evaluations, and learning from them, gone? Valuing Voices. https://valuingvoices.com/inter-american-development-bank-idb-where-have-your-ex-post-evaluations-and-learning-from-them-gone/

Cekan, J., & Legro, S. (2022). Can we assume sustained impact? Verifying the sustainability of climate change mitigation results. In J. I. Uitto & G. Batra (Eds.), Transformational change for people and the planet: Evaluating environment and development. Springer. https://link.springer.com/book/10.1007/978-3-030-78853-7

Coffman, J. (2004). Michael Scriven on the differences between evaluation and social science research. Evaluation Exchange, 9(4). https://archive.globalfrp.org/evaluation/the-evaluation-exchange/issue-archive/reflecting-on-the-past-and-future-of-evaluation/michael-scriven-on-the-differences-between-evaluation-and-social-science-research

Donaldson, S., Patton, M., Fetterman D., & Scriven, M. (2010). The 2009 Claremont debates: The promise and pitfalls of utilization-focused and empowerment evaluation. Journal of MultiDisciplinary Evaluation, 6(13). https://www.researchgate.net/publication/41391464_The_2009_Claremont_Debates_The_Promise_and_Pitfalls_of_Utilization-Focused_and_Empowerment_Evaluation

Encyclopedia.com. (2018, May 17). Evaluation research: Brief history. https://www.encyclopedia.com/social-sciences-and-law/sociology-and-social-reform/sociology-general-terms-and-concepts/evaluation-research

Hasan, A. A. (2021, January 17). Ex-post eval week: Are we serious about project sustainability and exit? American Evaluation Association AEA365. https://aea365.org/blog/ex-post-eval-week-are-we-serious-about-project-sustainability-and-exit-by-abu-ala-hasan/

Japan International Cooperation Agency. (n.d.). Ex-post evaluation (technical cooperation). https://www.jica.go.jp/english/our_work/evaluation/tech_and_grant/project/ex_post/index.html

Jones, A., & Jordan, E. (2020, October 19). Unpacking the drivers of WASH sustainability. USAID Global Waters. https://www.globalwaters.org/resources/blogs/unpacking-drivers-wash-sustainability

Lewis, S. (2016, January). Developing a timeline for exit strategies: Experiences from an Action Learning Set with the British Red Cross, EveryChild, Oxfam GB, Sightsavers and WWF-UK. INTRAC. https://www.intrac.org/wpcms/wp-content/uploads/2016/09/INTRAC-Praxis-Paper-31_Developing-a-timeline-for-exit-strategies.-Sarah-Lewis.pdf

Lopez, K. (2015, April 7). IEG blog series part II: Theory vs. practice at the World Bank. Valuing Voices. https://valuingvoices.com/ieg-blog-series-part-ii-theory-vs-practice-at-the-world-bank/

Morris, L., George, B., Gondwe, C., James, R., Mauney, R., & Tamang, D. D. (2021, June). Is there lasting change, five years after EveryChild’s exit? Lessons in designing programmes for lasting impact. INTRAC. https://www.intrac.org/wpcms/wp-content/uploads/2021/07/Praxis-Paper-13_EveryChild-exit.pdf

Negi, N. K., & Sohn, M. W. (2022). Sustainability after project completion: Evidence from the GEF. In J. I. Uitto & G. Batra (Eds.), Transformational change for people and the planet: Evaluating environment and development. Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-78853-7_4

OECD. (2019). Applying evaluation criteria thoughtfully. [Chapter: Understanding the six criteria: Definitions, elements for analysis and key challenges]. OECD Publishing. https://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/sites/543e84ed-en/1/3/4/index.html?itemId=/content/publication/543e84ed-en&_csp_=535d2f2a848b7727d35502d7f36e4885&itemIGO=oecd&itemContentType=book#section-d1e4964

OECD/DAC. (2002). Evaluation and Aid Effectiveness No. 6 – Glossary of Key Terms in Evaluation and Results Based Management (in English, French and Spanish). https://read.oecd-ilibrary.org/development/evaluation-and-aid-effectiveness-no-6-glossary-of-key-terms-in-evaluation-and-results-based-management-in-english-french-and-spanish_9789264034921-en-fr#page37

Patton, M. Q. (2022, June 13). Why so many evaluation approaches: The short story version [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6xY9jMUUorM.

Rogers, B. L. & Coates, J. (2015, December). Sustaining development: A synthesis of results from a four-country study of sustainability and exit strategies among development food assistance projects. Food and Nutrition Technical Assistance III Project (FANTA III) for USAID. https://pdf.usaid.gov/pdf_docs/PA00M1SX.pdf

Rowe, A. (2019). Sustainability-ready evaluation: A call to action. New Directions for Evaluation, 162. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/ev.20365

Sustainable Governance Indicators. (n.d.). Evidence-based instruments. https://www.sgi-network.org/2020/Good_Governance/Executive_Capacity/Evidence-based_Instruments/Quality_of_Ex_Post_Evaluation

Sridharan, S., & Nakaima, A. (2010). Ten steps to making evaluation matter. Evaluation and Program Planning, 34(2), 135‚Äď146. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.evalprogplan.2010.09.003

UNESCO. (2017). Education for sustainable development goals: Learning objectives. https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000247444

USAID Mali. (2022, December). Ex-post evaluation of the USAID/Mali Out Of School Youth Project (PAJE-NIETA): Final evaluation report. https://pdf.usaid.gov/pdf_docs/PA00ZTBJ.pdf

USAID Uganda. (2017, October 11). Uganda case study summary report: Evaluation of sustained outcomes. https://pdf.usaid.gov/pdf_docs/PBAAJ314.pdf

Valuing Voices. (2020, December). Exit for sustainability checklists. https://valuingvoices.com/wp-content/uploads/2021/03/Exit-For-Sustainability-Checklists-Dec2020-2.pdf

Valuing Voices. (2012). Catalysts for ex-post learning. https://valuingvoices.com/catalysts-2/

Zivetz, L., Cekan J., & Robbins, K. (2017, May). Building the evidence base for post-project evaluation: Case study review and evaluability checklists. Valuing Voices. https://valuingvoices.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/11/The-case-for-post-project-evaluation-Valuing-Voices-Final-2017.pdf

[1] https://valuingvoices.com/

[2] https://valuingvoices.com/catalysts-2/

This chapter in published form can be accessed at: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/376497201_Fostering_Values-Driven_Sustainability_Through_an_Ex-Post_Capacities_Lens

The EU and Sustainability

 

The EU and Sustainability

 

At the Prague European Summit I was invited to last week, sustainability was on the program three times. The most relevant session was Towards a More Sustainable and Prosperous European and Global Economy through Trade and Investments, pictured below.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

I asked Panelists like Sabine Weyand, Director General for Trade at the European Commission, to define Sustainability. She defined it as actions the EU is taking, including mutually reinforcing Twin Transitions (Green and Digital) to foster a carbon-neutral EU by 2050 and the three pillars of sustainability, namely:

  • 1st pillar is ‘climate and environment,
  • 2nd, a zero carbon economy (including biodiversity), and
  • 3rd, social sustainability (equity by member states and internationally).

These were followed by several panelists mentioning the issue of member countries needing to support and fund these. One would think that funding would be gratefully accepted and reciprocated given the astonishing ‚ā¨338bil the EU already spent across Europe, eight times the size of the Marshall Plan.

The panelists of these sessions sketched out ambitious plans. I researched this oft-promised “EU Green Deal” to understand its scale, if the sustainability of results (which I work on ex-post), the sustainability of our global ecology, and/or sustainability in terms of business functions resides, if at all. The results of this cursory research did not make these clear. But ambitions are massive.¬†

EU Green Deal

The European Green Deal began when the EU Parliament adopted the EU Climate Law in 2021, which makes ‚Äúlegally binding a target of reducing emissions 55% by 2030 and¬†climate neutrality¬†by 2050. This moves the EU closer to its post-2050 objective of negative emissions and confirms its leadership in the global fight against climate change.‚ÄĚ

 

SIDENOTE1: Given that our lawsuit against the Czech Republic government for not meeting its Paris Agreement commitments just failed and the Ministry of the Environment successfully claimed that reducing emissions by only 26% was enough (rather than the EU‚Äôs target of 55%), I wonder how much of these ‚Äėlegally binding‚Äô targets will actually be met‚Ķ

 

Turning to what I could find of the 1st and 2nd pillars (as the 3rd was missing from Green Deal online documents which I found other than mentions of a ‚ÄėJust Transition‚Äô):

 

  1. AID FUNDING (SDGs)

The EU as a leading global partner for the funding the SDGs & Paris Agreement

The EU seems to be shifting from the SDGs which appear to be bilaterally funded, although ‘collectively’ claimed. ‚ÄúThe EU and its Member States are the leading donors of official development assistance (ODA) globally. In 2022, they collectively provided ‚ā¨92.8 billion (based on preliminary OECD figures), which accounts for 43% of global assistance.‚ÄĚ So what progress is that generating? Not much:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

SOURCE:https://unstats.un.org/sdgs/report/2023/progress-chart/Progress-Chart-2023.pdf

 

SIDENOTE2: And since we’re talking about climate, can the EU or other donors aid-fund functioning weather stations? They have 5% of the number the US and EU do which massively limits mitigation: https://africanarguments.org/2023/11/without-warning-africa-lack-of-weather-stations-is-costing-lives/

 

  1. SUSTAINABLE FINANCE FOR CLIMATE, ENVIRONMENT, AND ECONOMY (the 1st 2 pillars of the mentioned Sustainability)

So, for the EU, where I now live most of the time, sustainable finance plans seem to be off to a good start. Nearly 2/3 of the promised ‚ā¨300 billion has been secured in only two years. Notably, this is 1/3 of the EU’s planned ‚ā¨1 Trillion, including private investments. Two German policy researchers, Findeisen and Mack, question their achievability. ‚ÄúEurope needs to spend an additional ‚ā¨350 billion on climate action every year until the end of this decade‚Ķto reach its 55% greenhouse gas reduction target by 2030.‚ÄĚ Furthermore, ‚Äúshortcomings of [Investment Plan] InvestEU in combatting climate change can be addressed and why it is no substitute for fresh public spending at EU level.‚ÄĚ (See the excellent brief including concerns about the Sustainable Europe Investment Plan, outlined below. This overview of the EU‚Äôs Investment plan has broadly planned outputs (e.g., ambitions, financing, research, mobilizing), outcomes (e.g., energy generated, building new energy sources, restoring ecosystems, and building food systems and mobility), and impacts (e.g., a sustainable future):

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Source: https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:52020DC0021&rid=7

 

Much of the plan is, understandably, European-focused, yet we all know that the Global South is where the deepest needs and opportunities lie. Drilling down further to see investments, activities, and even results on the ground was both interesting and harder:

‚ÄúThe inaugural milestone of the Global Gateway was the¬†Africa-Europe Investment Package¬†with approximately¬†‚ā¨150 billion of investment dedicated to bolstering cooperation with African partners. We have also started implementing Global Gateway in¬†Asia and the Pacific¬†and in¬†Latin America and the Caribbean, where President von der Leyen announced a global investment by the EU and its Member States of over ‚ā¨45 billion. In 2023, ninety key projects were launched worldwide across the digital, energy, and transport sectors through Global Gateway to strengthen health, education, and research systems globally.‚ÄĚ

So, as an Africanist and evaluative researcher, I looked into the EU’s reported figures (and results). Under Global Gateway, the EU has funded 33 projects in Sub-Saharan Africa, 11 of which are climate-related and another 7 that are transport-related. There are only short descriptions of projects without substantive partners, activities, or data, such as a ‚ā¨1billion ‚ÄúClimate Change Adaptation and Resilience in Africa‚Äú. Details would be instructive, to say the least. Research on African Voices regarding their projects unearthed one that should already be of concern: Namibia‚Äôs $10 billion Green Hydrogen project, which is to help 2.5 million people decarbonize. However, the tendering is not transparent, locals are in the dark, there are biodiversity concerns, and initial funding is missing. Much more transparent monitoring & evaluation data is needed to know it is on track.¬†

 

I also consulted African Voices regarding COP28 that are relevant to the EU’s Africa investments.

  • Funds are needed. Lorraine Chiponda. a Coordinator of the Africa Movement Building Space notes that ‚ÄúAfrica receives a meager 3% of the total global climate finance and African countries still play a marginal role in the global finance system, making it a mammoth task to obtain funds for renewable energy investment.‚ÄĚ
  • Africa has much to offer. Joseph Nganga is¬†Interim Managing Director¬†at the Global Energy Alliance for People and Planet (GEAPP) reminds us that ‚ÄúAfrica, a region with a developing economy endowed with abundant natural resources, stands at a crossroads where strategic financial investments can steer its trajectory towards a prosperous climate-resilient future.‚ÄĚ
  • Moreover, financing needs are clearly expressed, which the EU, for one, should listen to. ‚ÄúThis year at the African Climate Summit, countries were united in their call for a series of finance reforms that would have a meaningful impact on their fiscal and policy space to address climate change. These include a reduction in borrowing costs and risk premiums;¬†debt management, restructuring and relief; scaling concessional climate finance from multilateral developments banks (MDBs); and reforms to the global tax regime.‚ÄĚ Olivia Rumble is a climate change legal and policy expert and a director of Climate Legal

 

Much more is needed for equitable partnerships to address our increasingly desperate climate needs. While I was at the conference, the Copernicus Climate Change Service issued a warning that “For the first time ever, the planet globally exceeded a key warming threshold on Friday for the first time since at least the beginning of instrument records, new data shows. Simply put, a 2-degree rise in global temperatures was considered as a target for the end of the century and is considered a critical threshold above which dangerous and cascading effects will occur.” COP28 has a lot to accomplish.

Helpful? Let me know in the comments…

 

 

Evaluating global aid projects ex-post closure: Evaluability… and how-to via Sustainability (and Resilience) Evaluation training materials

Evaluating global aid projects ex-post closure: Evaluability, and how-to via Sustainability (and Resilience) Evaluation training materials:

How do we evaluate projects ex-post, and are all projects evaluable after donors leave? How do we learn from project documents to ascertain likely markers of sustainability (hint: see materials for Theory of Sustainability and Sustainability Ratings) that we can verify? How do we design projects to make sustainability more likely (hint: implement pre-exit the drivers in the second image, below)?  How to consider evaluating resilience to climate change (hint: evaluate resilience characteristics)?

In 2017, Valuing Voices created an evaluability checklist for Michael Scriven’s foundation, as many projects are not implemented long enough, or too long ago, or have such weak monitoring and evaluation (M&E) data as to be very difficult to evaluate: https://valuingvoices.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Valuing-Voices-Checklists.pdf. We have used it in multiple evaluations since. Now in 2023, we are sharing work we’ve done with the Adaptation Fund, where we have applied that evaluability process via a vetting evaluability process that eliminated over 90% of all projects done in their early years, which alone is sobering but typical in our field, and is leading to changes in how they monitor, retain information and learn.¬† See page 24 – officially pg 15) of this Phase 1 report: https://www.adaptation-fund.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/10/2021-09-12-AF-TERG_Ex-Post-Phase-1-Final-Report_Final.pd

Evaluability of projects for ex-post at the Adaptation Fund

 

 

 

 

Ex-post evaluability at the Adaptation Fund

 

The Adaptation Fund has also committed to doing two ex-post sustainability and resilience evaluations per year. and learn from remote ex-posts as well.¬† The first two ex-post evaluations are found here:¬† Samoa/ UNDP on resilient infrastructure (https://www.adaptation-fund.org/wp-content/uploads/2023/01/Ex-Post-Evaluation-Samoa-final-ed-2.pdf) and Ecuador/ WFP on food security (https://www.adaptation-fund.org/document/ex-post-evaluation-summary-ecuador/). So many lessons from assumptions made to future design…

Not only are we evaluating projects ex-post, but we are also creating processes for others to follow, including this new Sustainability Framework. The left three columns project the likelihood of sustainability, which the right three columns verify. It includes the Valuing Voices ’emerging outcomes’ from local efforts to sustain results after donors leave. SO exciting:

Ex-post Sustainability Framework

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Also, just today, we published our training materials which we are using in ex-posts 3 and 4 in Argentina (Ministry of the Environment and the World Bank); https://www.adaptation-fund.org/document/training-material-for-ex-post-pilots/. They include videos for those who like to listen and watch us, as well as Powerpoint slides/ PDFs and Excels of our training materials (including suggested methods) for those who like to read…

Take a look, use, and tell us what you think and what you are learning! Thanks, Jindra Cekan (Sustainability) and Meg Spearman (Resilience) and the Adaptation Fund team!

Hard-wiring and Soft-wiring in Sustainability via health program examples

Hard-wiring and Soft-wiring in Sustainability via health program examples: by Laurence Desvignes and Jindra Cekan/ova

Overview

We all want things to last. Most of us joined the ‚Äėsustainable development‚Äô industry hoping our foreign aid projects not only do good while we are there but long afterward. Following on last month’s blog on better learning about project design, implementation, and M&E, here are some things to do better.

Long-term sustainability rests on four pillars: the first rests on how the project is designed and implemented before exit and the second is to what degree conditions are needed for the continuation of results the project generated are put into place. While the first one embeds sustainability into its very results, the second invests in processes to foster the continuation of results. The other two of the four pillars, returning to see what lasts by evaluating the sustainability of results two or more years later and bringing those lessons back to funding, design, implementation, and building in shock-resilience, e.g., such as to climate change, are in other Valuing Voices blogs.

We focus on 1 and 2 in this blog, and use an analogy of hard-wiring and soft-wiring sustainability into the fabric of the project:

  1. Hardwiring, ‚Äėbaking-in‚Äô sustainability involves the design/ implementation which predisposes results lasting. This includes investing in Maternal Child Health and Nutrition‚Äôs first 1000 days from conception to age two that are vital for child development. The baby‚Äôs physical development and nutrition are so important as is maternal well-being. Investing in these early days leads to better health and nutrition throughout their lives. So too are buying local. Too often our projects rely on imported technology and inputs that are hard to replace if broken. A project on hand pumps used by UNICEF suggested local purchase of those ‚Äúdesigned to optimize the chances of obtaining good quality hand pumps and an assured provision of spare parts‚ÄĚ involves both the hardware of the pump and also the ‚Äúcapacity building plan and a communication strategy.‚ÄĚ Also using local capacity/specialists when available vs external consultants can also be key to building the sustainability of a project.

Another example of baking-in sustainability is using participatory approaches to ensure that those implementing- such as the communities/ local authorities. In this example, it’s grassroots where participants are heard during design in terms of their priorities and how the project should be implemented. This includes targeting discussions and monitoring and evaluation being done with and by communities. The seminal research of 6,000 interviews with aid recipients, Time to Listen, found that they want to participate and when they do, things are more likely to be sustained, rather than being passive recipients…. there is ex-post proof such programming is more ‘owned’ and more sustained.

Conducting in-depth needs assessments at design is usually the way to collect information about what is needed and how projects should be implemented to last. Unfortunately, very often, the time is very limited for the proposal development and (I)NGOs are under pressure of short deadlines to submit the proposal, and needs assessments are either done quickly, collecting very basic information or not done at all. Yet time spent valuing the voices of participants can bring great richness. In 2022, the UN‚Äôs FAO did a monitoring and evaluation study in Malawi validating indicators for poverty by asking communities how they identify it from the start. “Researchers were impressed at how accurately the people they interviewed were able to gauge the relative wealth of their neighbors.” We were not surprised as the locals often know best. ¬† Another example with Mines Advisory Group in Cambodia, we developed a community-based participatory approach for design whereby project staff would work with the mine-affected communities to draw local maps of their villages, highlighting the location of the dangerous places and the key areas/places used by the communities. Staff and communities discussed the constraints, risks, needs, etc. to make their community safer, which the project would follow up with risk education, clearance, victim assistance, and/or alternative economic /development solutions to make the community safer. Other mine action agencies, e.g. Danish Refugee Council (Danish Demining Group) are also now using safer community approaches, involving local residents to decide on how to make their village safer depending on the community priorities[1].

Hardwiring in participatory feedback-loop learning from locals during implementation is also key. Implementation of a community feedback strategy once the programme is running is also essential. The community feedback mechanism (CFM) is a formal system established to enable affected populations to communicate information on their views, concerns, and experiences of a humanitarian agency or of the wider humanitarian system. It systematically captures, records, tracks, and follows up on the feedback it receives to improve elements of a response. CFM is key to ensuring that people affected by crisis have access to avenues to hold humanitarian actors to account; to offer affected people a formalized structure for raising concerns if they feel their needs are not being met, or if the assistance provided is having any unintended and harmful consequences;  to understand and solicit information on their experience of a humanitarian agency or response; as part of a broader commitment to quality and accountability that enables organizations to recognize and respond to any failures in response; to promote the voices and influence of people affected so their perspectives, rights, and priorities remain at the forefront of humanitarian/development work[2].

Promoting and implementing community engagement, such as a community feedback strategy, provides a basis for dialogue with people affected on what is needed and on how what is needed might best be provided, especially as needs change during implementation. This will help identify priority needs and is a means to gauge beneficiaries’ understanding of activities being carried out, to assist in the identification of local partners and establishment and follow-up of partnerships, and in the organizational development and capacity building of local institutions and authorities. It can strengthen the quality of assistance by facilitating dialogue and meaningful exchange between aid agencies and affected people at all stages of humanitarian response and result in the empowerment of those involved. Targeted people are viewed as social actors that can play an active role in decisions affecting their lives.

OXFAM‚Äôs project in Haiti starting in 2012 came as a result of a cholera epidemic that began in 2010 (“Preventing the Cholera Epidemic by Improving WASH Services and Promoting Hygiene in the North and Northeast”), whose goal was to contribute to the cholera elimination, experimented with the community feedback strategy as a means of gauging the recipients’ understanding of the activities carried out and of further strengthening the links between OXFAM and the communities during implementation. The initial process of community feedback was intended to both receive recommendations from project participants for better management of the action and also to better understand the strengths and weaknesses of Oxfam interventions. Based on the information and recommendations applied, OXFAM served as a bridge between the community and the actors involved (e.g. private firm contracted to carry out some health centers/ water systems renovation work or other) in the implementation of the project. This is also part of Oxfam’s logic of placing more emphasis on the issue of accountability and community engagement.

The feedback-loop benefits of such a community process are manyfold, especially on Protection, human rights, risk management, and further below, adapting Implementation, M&E, and fostering organizational learning:

  • CFMs assist in promoting the well-being, rights, and protection of people by offering them a platform to have a voice and be heard
  • it fosters participation, transparency, and trust
  • It uses Do No Harm and conflict-sensitive programming
  • It helps identify staff misconduct
  • It functions as a risk management and early warning system

Adapting Implementation and Improving M&E:

  • This process makes it possible to adapt to the priorities of the beneficiaries, to better meet their needs hence ensuring the agency‚Äôs accountability to the affected population
  • It facilitates and guarantees a better quality of the project.
  • It represents a means of monitoring our approaches and our achievements.
  • It makes it possible to construct a common vision shared between the various actors and the project participants/targeted communities.

Organizational Learning:

  • Ensuring the programme quality and accountability through the establishment of an appropriate accountability strategy (including Transparency, Feedback, Participation, Monitoring, and Effectiveness) and relevant methodologies and tools (since the planning stage of the project) is a key exercise which allow to think and plan for the sustainability of the programme at an early stage.
  • It allows us to gauge the strengths and weaknesses of the interventions while offering us the opportunity to learn from our experiences, hence allowing for programmatic learning and adaptative programming.
  • It conveys the impact of the project and the change brought about in the lives of the beneficiaries.
  • It is part of the logic of capitalizing on experiences to improve the quality of future projects.

 

2. Soft-wiring is creating conditions to make sustainability more likely for local communities and partners by thinking about how to replace what has been brought by the projects’ donors and implementers. This involves an analysis as well as actions that put conditions for sustainability into place before and during the time that foreign aid projects close. Valuing Voices’ checklists for exiting sustainably involves local ownership, sufficient capacities, and resources, viable partnerships, how well risks such as climate and economic shocks were identified and managed, and benchmarking for success 1-2 years before closure. Later it is important to return to check findings at ex-post project, comparing completion results to what was sustained 2-30 years later.

There are four categories of sustainability-fostering actions to do pre-exit which were identified by Rogers and Coates of Tufts for USAID for sustained exit:

  1. RESOURCES:

Several blogs on Valuing Voices deal with resources, including assumptions donors make. Donor resource investments cannot be assumed to be sustained.  The checklists outline a wide array of questions to ask during design and latest a year pre-exit, including what assumptions do aid projects make?  USAID water/ sanitation/ hygiene investments have mostly not been sustained, due to a combination of lack of resources to maintain them and low ownership of the resources invested.   Some key questions are:

  • Did the project consider how those taking over the project would get sufficient resources, e.g., grant funding or other income generation available or renting out their facility or infrastructure that they own or shift some of their activities to for-profit production, sold to cover part of project costs?
  • Does the project or partner have a facility or infrastructure that they own and is rentable to increase resources outside donor funding or can the project shift to for-profit, including institutional and individual in-kind products or technical knowledge skills that can be sold to cover part of project costs?
  • What new equipment is needed, e.g. computers, vehicles, technical (e.g. weighing scales) for activities to continue, and which stakeholder will retain them?
  • Or even no resources are needed because some project activities will scale down, move elsewhere, focus on a smaller number of activities that are locally sustainable, or the whole project will naturally phase-out)

2. PARTNERSHIPS:

The objective of that Oxfam project was to reduce the risks of communities placed in a situation of acute vulnerability to the cholera epidemic in two departments in Haiti (where about 1.5 million inhabitants reside). It focused on sustainability by effectively supporting and accompanying governmental WASH and health structures in the rapid response to alerts and outbreaks recorded in the targeted communities. How? Through awareness-raising activities among the populations concerned, by strengthening the epidemiological surveillance system and coordination between concerned stakeholders. The project also aimed to improve drinking water structures such as drinking water distribution points, drinking water networks or systems, catchments, and boreholes.  As part of this intervention, Oxfam worked in close collaboration and in support of the Departmental Directorates of Health (DH), DINEPA (government services responsible for water and sanitation), and local authorities at the level of cities, towns and neighborhoods, and community structures including civil protection teams.   Oxfam and DINEPA staff intervened through mixed mobile response teams that included technical and managerial staff from the health department to whom Oxfam provided ongoing technical support in terms of WASH analysis and actions, WASH training, finance training, and monitoring, as well as logistical support for the deployment of teams in the field (provision of vehicles and drivers). Oxfam was therefore working to ensure that cholera surveillance and mitigation actions were led by state and community actors, and by supporting state structures to build their capacities and allow ownership of the various aspects of the fight against cholera.   Concretely, this was done as follows:

  • Preliminary meetings and discussions were held with concerned governmental authorities to agree on a plan of action based on needs, implementation means, priorities, and budget for the health and wash governmental services/teams to be able to function. This was followed by the signature of an MoU between Oxfam and the Departmental Directorates of Health (DH).
  • An action plan was set up with the DH and DINEPA (governmental water and sanitation agency) at the very beginning of the project.
  • Outbreak response teams were managed directly by the DH and the staff was recruited, managed, and paid by the DH. The DH and DINEPA implemented the activities, managed the staff of the mobile teams, and provide technical monitoring in coordination with Oxfam.
  • The epidemiological monitoring activities carried out by the DH were also monitored by the Oxfam epidemiologist who, in close coordination with the DH, built the capacities of epidemiologists and staff at the departmental level and at the level of the treatment centers to ensure adequate monitoring and communication.
  • An Oxfam social engineering officer worked with DINEPA to ensure that the various water committees at the sources/infrastructure rehabilitated by Oxfam were functional. Sources/infrastructures were rehabilitated in concert with DINEPA to ensure the proper ownership.
  • Oxfam provided funding, and technical supervision and wrote and submitted the final report to the donor. Based on DH‚Äôs regular reports on activities which were then consolidated by Oxfam for the donor.
  • Teams were paid directly by the DH from funds received by Oxfam, based on the budget agreed by both Oxfam and the DH, and were based on government salary scales.
  • The Oxfam WASH team, which systematically accompanies case investigations in the field, further encouraged the participation of DINEPA and its community technicians, through regular meetings with the DINEPA departmental directors.
  • Overall, Oxfam ensured to provide support and capacity building of the DH, DINEPA, and community actors involved in the fight against cholera, to ensure proper ownership and to avoid substitution of the health/wash authorities.

3. OWNERSHIP:

The type of peer-partnering at design and during implementation described above is vital for ownership and sustainability. Unless we consider people‚Äôs ownership of the project and capacities to sustain results, they won‚Äôt be sustained. See Cekan’s exiting for sustainability checklists on phasing over before phasing out and exit, strengthening ownership, which brings us full circle to the participatory hard-wiring described above in Haiti.

4. CAPACITIES-STRENGTHENING

We have to strengthen capacities at the most sustainable level. Taking an example from IRC‚Äôs Sierra Leone Gender-based Violence project involves looking at what happens when capacities training done for local participants and partners to take over are not done right. In this case, there were two-year consultancies to the Ministry (MSWGCA) on strategic planning and gender training, but ‚Äúit is not clear if this type of support has had a sustainable impact. The institutional memory often disappears with the departure of the consultant, leaving behind sophisticated and extensive plans and strategies that there is simply no capacity to implement.‚ÄĚ The report found that community-based initiatives that are the ‚Äúprimary sources of support for GBV victims living in rural areas in a more innovative and sustainable way that promotes local ownership. They also may yield more results,‚ÄĚ most donor agencies find it hard to partner with community-based organizations so they recommended a focus on training and capacity-building of mainstream health workers to respond to GBV and aim for the government will assume control of service provision in approximately five years. The excellent manual by Sarriot et al on Sustainability Planning, ‚ÄúTaking the Long View: A Practical Guide to Sustainability Planning and Measurement in Community-Oriented Health Programming puts local capacity strengthening at the core. We have to consult and collaborate throughout and create an ‘enabling environment’ so that the activities and results are theirs.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Source: Sarriot et al 2008

Obviously, we should check on the sustainability we hope for. As ITAD/CRS note, we should do and learn from more ex-post evaluations which is much of what Valuing Voices advocates for.

 

Recommendations for fostering sustainability:

Few donors require information on how hard-wired or how soft-wired programming pre-exit is at closure which would make sustainability likely. Even fewer demand actual post-closure sustainability data to confirm assumptions at exit, sadly we believe most of our foreign aid has had limited sustained impacts. But this can change. ¬† Donors need to be educated that the ‚Äúlocalization‚ÄĚ agenda is the new trend (just as gender, resilience, and climate change have been at one point). It is beyond the ‚Äúnationalization‚ÄĚ of staff members (e.g. replacing expatriates with national staff), which is only one of the elements relating to locallization. True localization is to promote the local leadership of communities in their own ‚Äėsustainable development’. While this is easier to say than to do, sustainability depends on it. We foster it through the hard-wiring and soft-wiring we discussed above and more steps, below. ¬† Here are specific steps from Laurence‚Äôs and Jindra‚Äôs experiences with the Global South:

  • Funds & additional time for local partnership and ownership need to be embedded in the design and planned for, which requires a different approach on which the donors also need to be sensitized/ educated/ advocated to;
  • In-depth needs assessment must be carried out just before or when an NGO sets up an operation ‚Äď it usually takes time and should be integrated into any operation. Advocating this approach to donors is key so that it can be included in the budget or the NGO needs to find its own funds to do so) and the NGO country and sector strategy can then be updated yearly to embed such activities into the (I)NGO DNA;
  • Conduct a capacity strengthening assessment of the local authorities or partners with whom we are going to conduct the project. This can take between 3 to 6 months, depending on the number and type of actors involved but this is an essential element to build self-sustaining local capacities and ensure that comprehensive capacity building is going to take place. This transparent step is also an essential step to ensure ownership by national/governmental stakeholders;
  • It is vital to allow time to plan for an exit strategy at an early stage, even as early as design. This requires time and needs to be included in the budget for the implementation of the plan at least one year before the end, for phasing over to local implementing partners to take over before the donors/ Global North implementers exit, and for possibly strengthening capacities or extending programming to deliver on their timeline rather than ours before exiting out. More on this from CRS‚Äô Participation by All ex-post and of course the oft-cited ‚ÄúStopping As Success: Locally-led Transitions in Development‚ÄĚ by Peace Direct, Search for Common Ground, and CDA. Also do not forget shared leadership noted by UK‚Äôs INTRAC‚Äôs ‚ÄúInvesting in Exit‚ÄĚ;
  • Finally, don‚Äôt forget about evaluating ex-posts and embedding those lessons into future design/ implementation/ monitoring and evaluation.

  Investing in sustainability by hard-wiring or soft-wiring works! Let us know what you do…      

[1] https://drc.ngo/our-work/what-we-do/core-sectors/humanitarian-disarmament-and-peacebuilding/

[2] https://www.drc.ngo/media/vzlhxkea/drc_global-cfm-guidance_web_low-res.pdf